The most noticeable change is that I have added all 200 PHm Pop Synth Module presets to the plugin, resulting in a total of 968 Singles. As the list of Singles became even larger, I reworked the play mode section to make Single selection easier. There is now a dropdown to allow to select a bank directly and there are additional navigation buttons.
Another interesting change for some people might be one accuracy fix: Key Scaling =>Envelope Time didn’t modify Decay but only Attack, causing some Singles to sound incorrect.
More details & all fixes and changes can be found in the change log excerpt below. The new version is available for all platforms and can be obtained from the Download Page
[Fix] Drop down menus were hard to read on Linux because of the font being too tiny
[Accuracy] Key Scaling => Envelope Time modulation did not affect Decay but only Attack, causing some Single to sound incorrect when compared to the K1 hardware. This change fixes the Single ‚KillDa Mix‘ and others, mostly Pianos.
[Imp] All 200 PHm presets are now part of the plugin, causing it to have 968 total built in presets.
[Imp] Single selection screen has been reworked, for easier navigation it now includes a dropdown to select the Bank and has more navigation buttons.
[Imp] Plugin Logo has been reworked to match the K1 hardware logo. Furthermore, the „KAWAI“ logo has been integrated as Kawai gave official permission for the plugin.
Some users reported that the velocity response of my K1v plugin is quite different compared to the K1 hardware. And yes, that is probably the area with the biggest difference between the K1v and the K1.
As I have pointed out in an earlier article, tracking down the velocity curves is very difficult, as there is no way to get the raw velocity data. What you will capture on the audio out is always the envelope volume – modulated by the velocity curve. Getting the raw velocity data is impossible.
A different approach – using the K1m Firmware ROM
While sitting here and thinking about how to solve the unsolvable problem, I had an idea. The K1 needs to have the curves stored somewhere. I used my PHm ROM that I have dumped earlier and loaded it as raw data into my wave editor.
It didn’t took very long until I found interesting data tables that looked similar to the velocity curve graphs in the manual. Actually, there a plenty of data tables in there. Not only velocity, I also found the key scaling curves and lots of other tables. I still need to figure out what they are for, but the result will be a much better precision in the K1 emulation.
The velocity curves have a length of 64 bytes each and have a range of 0 to 127, as you’d expect for velocity values. I extracted them from the ROM and used them in the K1v, but unfortunately they did not really match the K1 output.
Some things that I observed:
Velocity Curve 1, that is supposed to be linear, is not linear. Velocity Curve 3 is linear although it should not.
In my recordings, for most curves, velocity values above 100 do not make any difference anymore. But the curves have proper values, why aren’t they used?
Lets first have a look at what the manual says VS what is in the data:
What can be seen immediately is that all curves in the ROM are less exponential than required.
Furthermore, not the whole velocity range is used, at least not when modulating envelope volume. Take a look at the picture below, this is a K1 recording of Velocity Curve 1 with all velocity values from 1 to 127.
As you can see, envelope volume is peaking way before velocity maximum. To be precise, the maximum envelope level is reached already at velocity 102. I made the gap in the recording on purpose by inserting a quarter after velocity 100 so I had to count less bars to find the values 😊. The same applies to all other curves. Either the incoming velocity values are fed through some other table before the curve is applied, or afterwards. By testing different values and their result, I was able to verify that there must be another remapping before the velocity curves are applied.
It took me many hours, a lot of guessing, thinking & testing before I found the correct table in the firmware ROM. It turned out that it is a table with a length of 64, it looks like this:
This curve explains why very high velocity values do not make any difference anymore, they are cut off. Furthermore, the whole curve makes everything a little bit more exponential.
I was pleased with the result: I had steps in envelope volume values at the same velocity values than my K1m. The but came quickly as the values didn’t match the K1m.
To make the result more exponential, I had to search for a table with a specific size: The envelope level has a range of 0 to 100, so a table with 101 values had to be the correct one.
As I had worked on this topic for such a long time, my source code with all kinds of tables grew more and more 😁 And now definitely needs some cleanup.
Luckily, I found the correct table within one hour or so. It is a 16 bit table, it has a length of 101 as expected and makes the curves identical to the K1m.
Once more, Velocity Curve 7 as being output by the K1v, now 100% accurate:
You might see that there are very small differences due to rounding errors, but these shouldn’t really matter.
Two more pictures, a comparison of all velocity curves in all its glory 👍
As I have confidence about what tables make up correct velocity curves, I need to implement proper modulation levels. So far, everything you see is at Vel => Env Mod +50, i.e. 100%. Special care needs to be taken when implementing the modulation strength as I currently have the impression that a value of +25 does not mean a modulation strength of 50%, there might be another remapping table being inserted to do this. Negative strengths are another topic that might be interesting.
Of course, once I’m done there will be another post to announce the release of the update.
Other useful data tables in the firmware ROM?
There are some other tables in the ROM, both 8 bit and 16 bit with data that looks interesting. If I can figure out what they are used for, I can improve the emulation a lot.
For the latter curve, it looks very similar to one of my own curves that I had figured out by analyzing wave data.
If I ever go to emulate another synthesizer, putting more effort into ROM analysis instead of recording hours of data is the better way to go 😊 Stay tuned & thanks for reading!
Finally, after waiting several weeks, Kawai reported back to me that they have no issues with me developing a Kawai K1 emulation. This is great news for me personally as I was still concerned that Kawai could respond in a way that would bring me in trouble. But they did not! 👍 They even sent high quality Kawai logos that I’m allowed to integrate into the plugin, I’m impressed, big thanks to Kawai!
Furthermore, there are now Linux & Mac versions of the VST. For Linux, there are .deb and .rpm packages in both 32 bits and 64 bits. The Mac version requires a 64 bit OS, minimum version is OS X 10.9 Mavericks.
For Mac, an AU version will definitely come. LV2 for Linux, too! Stay tuned.
Special thanks to all donators and to all testers at the KvR forum, a lot of people helped making the plugin available for Linux & Mac by testing on their machines.
You may have read about my Kawai K1m in the development blog. Unfortunately, it is slightly broken and I thought, as there are so many people around still loving these old machines, that some of you could give a hint to repair it.
The issue is that the envelope attacks behave incorrectly. Short attack values are fine, but larger values cause the machine to end in complete silence.
With attack values larger than 36, the attack never finishes, decay is never reached and the sound is audible forever, no matter what the decay/sustain/release values are.
If the attack is even longer, starting with value of 50, the volume starts to decrease. The attack gets stuck so early that the voice keeps being very quiet. With a value of 69, the sound is not audible anymore at all. Below is a picture that shows attack values up to 69, where the voice becomes completely silent.
Anyone knows what is wrong? What I already tried:
I added fresh solder to most ICs, including the CPU, the WaveROM (you might know) and the RAM chips
I measured the connections between the three tone generators and between tone generators and CPU & Wave ROM, they’re all fine
I upgraded the K1m firmware, I ordered a new chip with version 1.5, previously it had 1.3, no change
I contacted Kawai and asked for help, unfortunately they have no idea
I turned it off and on again 😎
My current assumption is that one of the Tone Generator chips is faulty and needs replacement. If there is anyone with another idea, that would be absolutely fantastic! 👍
As you might know, I was always interested to have the presets of the Kawai Phm Pop Synth Module. The PHm uses the same synthesis engine as the K1, the only exception is that the 200 presets cannot be edited. Not even via SysEX, as the PHm neither sends nor recognizes SysEX at all.
The PHm has some presets that never appeared on ROM cards for the K1. Due to a thread on KVR, I asked myself if there is a chance to extract the PHm presets from the device.
I have the device so I opened it and looked for chips that are ROMs. I have not been able to find any chip, so I wondered where the presets are stored. I guessed that they might be part of the Firmware EPROM.
I searched in the net and found the data sheet. This not only gave me the pin layout, but it also revealed something interesting: The EPROM of the PHm is 64kb, while the K1 EPROM is only 32k. This raised chances that it contains the presets.
Dumping the ROM was pretty straightforward, as I did this already for the Wave ROM. The only thing I needed to change is to change the wiring and the code a bit, as the firmware only has 16 address lines.
I dumped the rom and converted it to binary and started to look for the presets. Searching for presets by name didn’t lead to any result so instead, I searched for usual patterns that I already know because of the K1 Single format.
Given that 200 presets need about 20k of space, I quickly found them and began to compare the content against some presets that I know exist on the K1, too (on ROM cards).
Below is a picture. the upper part is the PHm firmware, the lower part is the SysEX of the K1 preset „ID-4 Hold a key“ from ROM card J1-02.
After some analysis, the differences are very minor. Compared to a K1 Single preset, the differences are:
No sysex header (F0h, …, 8 bytes)
No name (10 bytes)
Compared to the K1, they slightly adjusted the presets volumes (byte 11)
Byte at position 22 is missing in a PHm preset => A bit surprising to me, but apparently Source Mute is not supported by the PHm module
No sysex terminator (F7h, one byte)
After I figured out the format, I wrote a small conversion tool that converts all 200 PHm presets to K1 presets. Feel free to download them here! The Zip contains each preset individually and one .syx that contains all 200. The K1v can load it directly.
A small request: If anyone has got a Kawai PH50 firmware, can someone send me a dump? I’d love to extract the Ph50 presets, too!
Note: The PH50 presets are not identical to the PHm, although frequently stated on some websites. Just look at pictures of the device, the preset list is printed on it and it is different from the PHm list.
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